Kingdom of Gumma

Kingdom of Gumma

Part of Ethiopian Empire (1885-1899)

c. 1770–1902

Not specified

Sunni Islam



c. 1770

Separatist Government

Annexed by Ethiopian Empire

Succeeded by

Ethiopian Empire

The Kingdom of Gumma was one of the kingdoms in the Gibe region of Ethiopia that emerged in the 18th century. Its eastern border was formed by the bend of the Didessa River, which separated it from (proceeding downstream to upstream) Limmu-Ennarea to the northeast, and the kingdoms of Gomma and Gera to the south. Beyond its northern border were various Macha Oromo groups, and to the west Sidamo groups. Its territory corresponds approximately with the modern woredas of Gechi and Didessa.
This former kingdom was mostly located on a plateau with an average elevation of 6500 feet, and had a population estimated in 1880 of about 50,000. Its inhabitants had a reputation as warriors.[1] Beckingham and Huntingford considered Gumma, along with Gomma, was the least economically developed of the Gibe kingdoms; however Mohamed Hassen notes that, with the exception of the northern and western boundaries where constant raiding by her neighbors, the Arjo in the north and the Nonno in the west, forced those living in those parts to embrace pastoralism, the land was intensively farmed and grew many of the same crops as the other Gibe kingdoms — sorghum, wheat, barley and cotton — except for coffee.[2]
The latest kings of Gumma traced their origin to a man called Adam. Around 1770, he came to live in the area, and is said to have then helped in the deposition of the last king of the previous dynasty, Sarborada. The historian Mohammed Hassen, in discussing this tradition, suggests this tradition about Adam “was invented so as to Islamize the original founder of the dynasty.”[3]
King Jawe was converted to Islam by merchants from Shewa and Begemder, and in turn he imposed his religious faith upon his subjects.[4]
In 1882, King Abba Jubir of Gumma convinced the kings of Ennerea, Gomma and Jimma to form a confederacy known as the “Muslim League”, to counter the threat from some of the Macha Oromo, who in turn formed their own alliance, the “League of the Four Oromo”. At first the Muslim League had little success against this threat, for the other members did not support Abba Jubir against the Macha, until his eld

Brighton Aldridge Community Academy

Brighton Aldridge Community Academy

1 September 2010 (2010-09-01)


Dylan Davies

Lewes Road
East Sussex
Coordinates: 50°51′32″N 0°05′28″W / 50.859°N 0.091°W / 50.859; -0.091

DfE number

136164 Tables





Volk, Gunnel, Roddick, Malala


Brighton Aldridge Community Academy (BACA)[1] is a coeducational academy school in Brighton. It opened on 1 September 2010.
The school replaced Falmer High School and is sponsored by the Aldridge Foundation, an educational charity founded by Sir Rod Aldridge. Dylan Davies became Brighton Aldridge Community Academy’s second Principal succeeding Phil Hogg on her retirement, taking up the role in January 2014.
In October 2010 the school announced a partnership with Sussex Cricket League to promote cricket in the area.[2] The Aldridge Cricket Academy was subsequently formed which allows sixth form students from Brighton Aldridge Community Academy or Portslade Aldridge Community Academy to combine A level studies with an intensive cricket development programme.[3]
Brighton Aldridge Community Academy, Portslade Aldridge Community Academy and Latest TV jointly provide a digital media academy to students called the Brighton Digital Media Academy (BDMA), which launched in September 2015.[4]
The school was rated “Good” in all categories by Ofsted in January 2017.[5]
The building was designed by architects Feilden Clegg Bradley and constructed by building firm Kier Group. The first phase of the new building was finished in September 2010 and all buildings were completed by September 2011.

^ Chiles, Andy (2010-01-27). “New name chosen for Brighton school”. The Argus. 
^ Sussex partnership with Brighton Aldridge Community Academy – News – Sussex County Cricket Club
^ “Aldridge Cricket Academy website”. Aldridge Cricket Academy. Retrieved 2015-10-27. 
^ “Brighton Aldridge Community Academy – Brighton Digital Media Academy”. Retrieved 2015-10-27. 
^ “Brighton School Celebrates Improved Ofsted Rating”. 

External links[edit]

Brighton Aldridge Community Academy official website
Proposed Falmer Academy


Buildings and architecture of Brighton and Hove


Conservation areas
Listed buildings: Grade I
Grade II*

Richard Withers

Brother Richard Scott Withers (born 1955) is an American consecrated hermit. In 1974, Withers converted to Catholicism and was baptized; shortly after, he started to live a religious life. In 1989, Withers and Sister Margaret McKenna moved to inner city Philadelphia and founded New Jerusalem Laura, a drug treatment center. Withers petitioned the Archdiocese of Philadelphia to become a consecrated hermit several times but was rejected. In 2001, Withers was consecrated as a hermit by Cardinal Anthony Bevilacqua, the Archbishop of Philadelphia. He was the first hermit to be consecrated in the Archdiocese of Philadelphia. Withers lives in a hermitage, a converted rowhouse, in the city of Philadelphia where he spends most of his time in prayer.


1 Early life
2 Religious life

2.1 Life as a hermit

3 References

3.1 Footnotes
3.2 Bibliography

Early life[edit]
Withers was born in California’s San Fernando Valley. He had seven siblings and his father was a mechanical engineer. Neither of his parents were practicing Catholics during his childhood. His father had been raised Catholic but then “lapsed”.[1] Instead, he was raised culturally Jewish according to the faith of his mother.[2] When Withers was eight, his family moved to Cherry Hill, New Jersey. In 1974, he had an encounter with a group of Catholic activists at the bicycle repair shop where he worked, which caused him to convert to Catholicism and be baptized. The same year, Withers left home for nearby Camden, New Jersey, to live in and repair abandoned row houses.[3]
Religious life[edit]
After his baptism, Withers lived in a loosely affiliated religious community. While there, Withers almost got married but decided that he wanted to live a religious life instead.[4] In 1984, he took private vows of “poverty, chastity, and obedience” and became a hermit. Before taking his vows, Withers had looked into several religious orders, but he could not find one that he felt compatible with.[1] Passionate about the spirituality of the Desert Fathers, he and Sister Margaret McKenna debated about “Where is the desert today?”[5] Deciding it was in the abandoned inner cities, in 1989 they moved into an abandoned row house that they began restoring, continuing their work even when their tools were regularly stolen by drug addicts.[5] There, they founded New Jerusalem Laura, a treatment center for drug addicts.[6]
Two years later, in 1991, Withers bought a derelict rowhouse from the city of Philadelphia

List of The Aquabats! Super Show! characters

The series’ intertitle, depicting the five main characters.

The following is a list of characters in The Aquabats! Super Show!, an American action-comedy television series which aired on the United States cable channel The Hub for two seasons from March 3, 2012 to January 18, 2014.
A mix of live-action and animation, The Aquabats! Super Show! follows the adventures of The Aquabats, a band of superhero rock musicians as they defend the world against a variety of villains and monsters. The series is predominantly based upon The Aquabats’ own background as a real-life band, and as such has adapted numerous characters from the band’s stage shows and elaborate fictional mythology.


1 Main characters

1.1 The Aquabats

2 Supplemental characters

2.1 Villains

2.1.1 Live-action
2.1.2 Animated

2.2 Allies

2.2.1 Live-action
2.2.2 Animated

2.3 Unknown

3 References
4 External links

Main characters[edit]
The Aquabats[edit]
The Aquabats are a band of superhero rock musicians who travel the countryside fighting the forces of evil while moonlighting as a struggling rock and roll band. Despite their variety of superpowers, abilities and technology, the group are generally bumbling and inexperienced, and more often than not save the day by sheer luck or crudely unorthodox methods. In the series’ first season, The Aquabats are depicted as an obscure and mostly out-of-work local superhero team, overshadowed by other, more competent superheroes and usually only stumbling into trouble they’re directly or indirectly the cause of. After saving the world in the season finale, however, the band are recognized and treated as international heroes and celebrities in the second season, receiving top-priority government assignments and even sponsoring their own summer camp.
The Aquabats live and travel by way of the BattleTram, a modified recreational vehicle which serves as a combination tour bus and mobile command center. Unlike most other superheroes, The Aquabats have no alter egos to speak of, and are never seen without their trademark masks and helmets. The band’s origin story was kept intentionally vague by the series’ writers; while the first season made no references or allusions to the group’s history, several episodes of the second season feature each member of The Aquabats recounting how they came together via animated flashback sequences. However, as each of these flashbacks directly contradict one another, it remains unknown if any could be co